Diabetes 'consists of 5 distinct types'

The study could not confirm if the five types have different causes nor if patients’ type changes over time

People suffering from diabetes can be divided into five separate groups, not just two, as commonly thought, says a new study.

He said that this would lead to more precise diagnosis and treatment of diabetes tailored to individual needs.

Traditionally, diabetes has been understood to have two main forms.

The charity has also revealed the number of people who have been diagnosed with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes has increased by more than 2,000 in the county since a year ago. Genetic analysis of the five subgroups revealed that all of them are genetically distinct from one another, but it is not clear from the study if there are different causes or if patients can change type over time.

"Diabetes is not the grey mass we have been calling type 2 - there are really subsets of the disease that require different treatment", said Groop.

Groop and colleagues performed data-driven cluster analysis for 8,980 adults with newly diagnosed diabetes from the All New Diabetics in Scania (ANDIS) cohort in Sweden.

Individuals in cluster 3 (most resistant to insulin) had a significantly higher risk of diabetic kidney disease than individuals in clusters 4 and 5, but had been prescribed similar diabetes treatment, researchers said. Clusters 1 and 2 had a greater risk of diabetic ketoacidosis and had a higher HbA1c at diagnosis.

"This is the first step towards personalised treatment of diabetes", said Leif Groop, Professor at Lund University in Sweden. Autoimmune diabetes is generally diabetes that is classified traditionally as type 1 diabetes where the body's immune system attacks the pancreatic beta cells and stops the production and release of insulin hormone.

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For many years, diabetes cases have largely been classified as either type 1 or type 2.

There were patients whose cells also stopped producing insulin, but not due to their immune system; they were often young and in otherwise good shape.

Group 4, the mild obesity-related diabetes includes obese patients who fall ill at a relatively young age.

Cluster 5: Mild age related diabetes, affecting 39.6 per cent of patients. "They clearly need insulin very soon, nearly as much as "type 1", he said.

People with diabetes have excessively high blood glucose, or blood sugar, which comes from food. This suggests that more studies are needed to confirm that the anti-diabetic effects observed are exclusively caused by lefluonamide's effect on the insulin receptor. Future research will be needed to test and refine the five types.

By analysing 13,270 diabetics, . the study identified three...

Still, the findings seem to be a positive step toward improved treatment of diabetes, which affects more than 420 million people worldwide.

The researchers plan to launch similar studies in China and India. I only have to look at my mum's workload to see that: as a diabetes specialist nurse, she's busier than ever, supporting patients throughout day to day management of their condition and some of the more serious complications of the disease, from blindness to kidney failure and limb amputation. The clusters and associated complications will need to be verified in other populations, including other ethnicities that may have a different risk of diabetes, such as Asian populations.



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